Программа содействия управлению границами в Центральной Азии (БОМКА)
Программа является одной из всеобъемлющих и сложных программ ЕС-ПРООН по содействию в институциональном развитии. Повышение потенциала по комплексному управлению границами (КУГ) осуществляется посредством обучения и применения лучшего европейского опыта. Программа также нацелена на развитие инфраструктуры, предоставление оборудования, проведение специальной подготовки специалистов правоохранительных органов по обеспечению безопасности границ. Также программа работает над развитием торговых операций в отдельных пунктах пересечения границы, повышением безопасности и улучшением условий несения службы на отдельных участках таджикско-афганской границы. Кроме того, ведется работа по модернизации учебных заведений для внедрения методологии комплексного управления границами. Параллельно программа нацелена реформирование законодательства и институциональных рамок.
In Kazakhstan, the Border guards are in a rapid process of change toward more modern border management. There are good signs of intention to change the conscript model to a modern, professional Several phases of BOMCA (1 through 6) have already been implemented and Bomca phase 6 is still ongoing. BOMCA 8 is the continuation of BOMCA 7, but develops specific additional activities described in this report. BOMCA 8 will contribute to enhanced border security through institutional reform and advocacy for an IBM approach, coupled with technical assistance for capacity building of Border Agencies. Given that many actvities in the area of drug supply reduction are border-related issues, activities on strengthening the fight againts narcotics and precursors have been included in BOMCA phase 8 after being part previously of the CADAP programme. Border guard service and future cooperation with European agencies, such as FRONTEX, is envisaged.Kazakhstan has borders with China, the Russian Federation, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Delimitation treaties between Kazakhstan and China, Turkmenistan and Russia respectively have been signed.
The five controlling bodies involved in border management in the Republic of Kazakhstan include the Customs Control Committee, National Security Committee (the Border Guards are actually part of the National Security Committee), Ministry of Transport and Communication, Ministry of Health and Ministry of Agriculture. The listed authorities are responsible for close cooperation and interaction in customs control, border control, transport control, sanitary and epidemiological control which is executed by the Ministry of Health and veterinary and phyto-sanitary control which is performed by the Ministry of Agriculture. Kazakhstan has achieved major changes in its legislation regarding the Border Agencies. In a near future, only 2 agencies will have responsibilities at Borders, the Border Guards and the Customs, the last taking the responsibility of the Sanitary, Veternary and Phytosanitary controls.
Kazakhstan is a member of several international organizations, which also deal with issues related to border management. In this respect Kazakhstan participates in regular meetings of the Council of Heads of Border Guards of the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC). In this framework, member states of both organizations cooperate on the protection of external borders and the management of internal borders within the regions. There is an Inter-ministerial Commission On Elaboration of Recommendations for construction and development of single border crossing points at the automobile border crossing points of the Republic of Kazakhstan which include all state bodies performing control at border crossing points.
In the framework of the BOMCA 6 activity „Institutional reform in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan”, two experts of the Hungarian Border Service conducted a mission in April 2009 to Astana, followed by a trip at the Russian Border, to evaluate the possible involvement of BOMCA in term of assistance in the development of such a Strategy.
Kazakhstan has been implementing the concept of interaction and cooperation at the border in the spirit of the so-called „One stop concept” or “Single Window concept”, also referred to as United Border Crossing Points. Under the existing Joint Order, all five involved agencies of Kazakhstan closely interact at UBCPs. The plan for UBCPs has been implemented at the Kazakh-Russian border, where currently 18 UBCPs exist. The number of BCPs at this border is anticipated to increase to a total of 180 BCPs.
Kazakhstan has negotiated similar border management arrangements with China, where 5 such UBCPs are in use, and is piloting a joint border control experiment with Kyrgyzstan at two border crossing points on its southern border. Kazakhstan also intends to open an international center for cooperation at the borders with China and Kyrgyzstan, in order to increase the efficiency of trade and transit.
Cooperation and interest in cooperation with EU and BOMCA is one of the priorities of Kazakhstan. The border infrastructure is under development, and border agencies are comparatively well-trained and well-equipped compared with neighboring countries in Central Asia. Cooperation with neighboring states is ongoing on a basis of agreements on Cooperation in Protection of The Common Border, which also includes operative-intelligence cooperation.
While in previous BOMCA phases training centers of border agencies were refurbished or newly built, the current phase is dedicated to enhance the capacity of the directors of the training centers and staff. Regional and National “Training of trainers” courses were conducted in Almaty, along with Skills Training courses for new trainers, the newly trained Trainers are included in national Training Seminars. The Military Institute in Almaty, as the main Institute in Kazakhstan for curriculum development and education for future border officers is open for future cooperation with BOMCA and with other countries. Support to reform the curriculum and to increase the standards of the education is appreciated and the cooperation with the Institute is on a regular base.
Kazakhstan is seeking cooperation with the neighboring countries as well as with European training academies, especially on Study Tours Border Guards are seeking closer cooperation and exchange of information.
Reconstruction works have been completed at “Merke” Railroad Crossing BCP and Drug Detection equipment has been procured and delivered to BCP “Kordai” (Kazakh - Kyrgyz border). The renovated facilities are in use for Training delivery under BOMCA.
|Donor name||Amount contributed|
|Aprl 2013||$ 102,592|
|Dec 2012||$ 509,333|