6 Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty
Where we are
Target 1: Reduce by half the proportion of people whose daily consumption is below USD 4.30, measured in average PPP (parity purchasing power), as compared with 2001.
Kazakhstan achieved Target 1 in 2004. However, poverty is still a serious issue for the country, especially in rural areas. For this reason, the 2007 Report proposed a new MDG 1+: to halve the proportion of people in rural areas whose income is below the subsistence minimum. Notwithstanding some progress in the reduction of income poverty, there is a certain risk for a quite considerable proportion of the population living near the poverty line to fall into poverty. Virtually 80 percent of the population in the country have an income twice the level of the subsistence minimum. Earned income remains at a level insufficient for a decent income, thus reducing the attractiveness of productive employment. Regional differences in poverty remain and rural poverty is deeper in all regions. Levels of rural poverty are still almost twice as high as urban poverty. Public social policy for the protection of vulnerable categories should be an effective mechanism of a poverty reduction strategy. The strategy should be designed to further enhance the system for protection of the most vulnerable categories, especially those living in rural areas, the self-employed, large and incomplete families, old people, disabled people and migrants. Achievement of this target by 2015 will require an enabling environment in rural areas for the development of entrepreneurship, an enabling legislative framework for the employment of migrants and their access to entrepreneurship activities. This will also require enhanced access for disadvantaged people, especially women, migrants, refugees, young and old people and disabled people, to the social safety system and development of social services involving NGOs as service providers.
Target 2: Reduce the share of the poor by one third (based on the nationally defined poverty level) This goal in its original version was achieved in Kazakhstan already in 2004.
Target 2 has now been achieved. For Kazakhstan, the issue of hunger is no longer urgent. Therefore, Target 2 was adapted in 2007 to a national target of halving the proportion of people having no access to balanced nutrition. A substantial proportion of the population, especially those from risk groups including children and women of reproductive age, need to have better nutrition. Particularly, some children under five, who are under-weight and under-height, factors which characterise nutrition quality. Deficiency of some micro-nutrients remains high among risk groups; such deficiency is called ‘hidden hunger’. The reduction and eradication of micro-nutrient deficiency will help to significantly improve health and reduce child and maternal mortality, which is a contribution to the achievement of MDG 4 and 5. This will require preparation, government approval and implementation of a comprehensive programme on balanced nutrition for children under five and prevention of malnutrition and nutritional status abnormalities.
UNDP's work in Kazakhstan
The 8 Millennium Development Goals
- 1 Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty
- 2 Achieve universal primary education
- 3 Promote gender equality and empower women
- 4 Reduce child mortality
- 5 Improve maternal health
- 6 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
- 7 Ensure environmental sustainability
- 8 Develop a global partnership for development
Targets for MDG1
- Reduce by half the proportion of people living on less than a dollar a day
- Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day
- Poverty gap ratio
- Share of poorest quintile in national consumption
- Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people
- Growth rate of GDP per person employed
- Employment-to-population ratio
- Proportion of employed people living below $1 (PPP) per day
- Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment
- Reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
- Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age
- Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption